Non-destructive testing devices. What are they for and where they may be needed

Non-destructive testing devices are a broad category of measuring devices. With their help, you can perform diagnostics, check the quality, technical condition and characteristics of various objects without damaging them and taking them out of service. They are especially useful when checking the states of various components, and the mechanism does not always need to be disassembled, removed or even stopped to obtain an estimate.

According to GOST 18353-78, there are 9 main types of non-destructive testing (Non-Destructive Testing), based on various phenomena. All of them are united by the fact that they practically do not affect the studied object or material, do not lead to a change in the technical, physical or operational properties of the sample.

Hundreds of devices have been created based on the principles of non-destructive testing, but most of them are used in industry, construction, energy, transportation and housing and communal services and many other sectors. Industrial models are narrow-profile equipment of impressive dimensions.

With their help, it is possible to determine defects that are invisible to the eye, to identify deviations and anomalies. Such devices are useful for studying various types of faults in hard-to-reach places. For example, you can find the place of a leak, determine the overheating of the units, and an uneven layer of paint can indicate that the car has been in an accident.

Pyrometers and thermal imagers
A pyrometer and a thermal imager have a similar purpose and function. They are used for energy audits. They help to measure the hidden, to find the hidden . In both cases, the equipment is designed to study the temperature of various objects. It can be a wall, a panel, various types of household appliances and electronics, power lines and much more. The temperature of people and animals can be measured.

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Temperature measurements are carried out in a spectrum invisible to the human eye. The instruments help detect temperature anomalies. At the same time, the pyrometer and thermal imager do this at a distance. Thus, you do not need to come close to hot or cold objects and touch them. It is enough to press a button on the device, and immediately get the result.

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A pyrometer or thermal imager will be great helpers during repair and construction work, in diagnosing vehicle and equipment malfunctions, checking the functionality of the ventilation or air conditioning system. They will help you find hot and cold spots, heat leaks. In fire systems, devices can help detect fire points and potentially hazardous areas.

What is a pyrometer
A pyrometer is an energy audit device that displays the average temperature of a selected area. In fact, it is a non-contact IR thermometer for taking instant readings. The display shows only the average temperature in the measured area. As the distance to the object increases, the area of ​​the measurement spot also increases. Such equipment is suitable for measuring surface temperature without considering fluctuations.

The pyrometer is suitable for temperature measurement:

radiators and other elements of the heat supply system;
working units and parts (for example, a bearing in an engine);
hot metal for proper processing;
ventilation holes, channels, pipes;
indoor surfaces to track leaks;
areas around the door frame, window frame, or on the balcony to look for cracks.
With its help, you can check the quality of thermal insulation, identify the temperature difference on adjacent surfaces. In repair and construction work, in order to comply with the technology of laying various materials, you need to make sure that the temperature is correct. Otherwise, for example, a bonding solution or glue may simply “not take”.

To examine the surface temperature at different points, you will have to bring the device closer to the surface and take readings several times. A useful function in this case will be to save the results so as not to write them down and not store them in your head.

More details on how to measure the freezing of walls with a pyrometer and some of the features of the device are described in this article , and for those who want to buy this device, the Infographics on choosing a non-contact thermometer will be useful .

What is a thermal imager
This is a more functional energy audit tool that demonstrates a convenient and informative color map (thermogram). In other words, the thermal imager provides a clearer thermal image rather than an average value. The image is displayed on the built-in or external display (including the smartphone screen). With its help, it will be easier to find gaps, thermal leaks, or vice versa – overheating points.

Instead of a dozen measurements of pyrometers, after which there are still many unsolved questions, you can get a clearer assessment with one measurement. With a thermal imager, you can quickly find a gap in a wall or frame. At the same time, the device can output video at a speed of several frames per second, which helps to track changes in real time. Of course, this affects the price – thermal imagers are several times more expensive than pyrometers. You can read more about visualizing the temperature picture in a thermal imager in this article .

Thermal imagers have found their application in other areas as well. With their help, you can track people, vehicles and animals in the field of view of the device. The device has proven itself in professional video surveillance systems, fire services and other areas. And of course, with its help, you can easily find a black cat in a dark room at night. There are thermal imagers for hunting that will help you see what is hidden even from the keen eyes of a seasoned hunter.

Thickness Gauges
The measuring device is suitable for evaluating the thickness of magnetic and non-magnetic materials, a single layer of non-magnetic material. There are several types of thickness gauges, which depend on the purpose and scope of application. The most common option is the so-called paint meter, which is actively used in everyday life, but the functionality of the gadget is not limited only to this.

The thickness gauge for measuring paintwork is one of the useful gadgets for car enthusiasts , especially when buying and selling vehicles. With its help, for example, you can measure the thickness of the paintwork, and a large drop may indicate an impact and subsequent straightening. This requires direct contact of the sensor with the surface under investigation.

Moisture meters
Moisture meter is a measuring device for determining the moisture content of a material. The device, without exaggeration, can be called indispensable and necessary in the food, chemical, construction and woodworking industries. Measuring the moisture content of an object or material is important in repair and construction work, agriculture and other areas.

Excess (or lack) of moisture indicates non-observance of storage conditions due to which the operational properties deteriorate. Excessive moisture, for example, can render wood or other building materials unusable. A moisture meter is one of the means for monitoring production processes. The accuracy of the result ensures that the sensor and the test material are in close contact.

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A household moisture meter is useful for a home craftsman. In agriculture, moisture meters are often used to measure soil moisture.

There are specialized devices for measuring the moisture content of grains, concrete and other materials, which can be in the form of a flask, where you need to pour material for measurements.

This is a type of moisture meter designed to determine air humidity. The parameter is important for maintaining the microclimate. Hygrometers are used in houses, apartments, cellars and attics, in warehouses and enterprises of various fields. With its help, you can determine deviations from optimal conditions, and adjust the indicator to the desired values.

Excessive humidity in the air can lead to the development of mold and harmful microorganisms. Food products in such conditions will rot and deteriorate faster, not to mention materials. Fruits and vegetables in dry air dry quickly and wither, which affects the appearance and taste.

Indoor air humidity is an important characteristic for human health. Especially when there are people with weakened immune systems or children in the room. The increased value contributes to the development of harmful microorganisms, not to mention the appearance of mold and mildew on surfaces, damage to finishing materials, walls themselves, ceilings and floors. In addition, excess moisture weakens the immune system and increases the likelihood of colds.

Low air humidity dries up the mucous membrane, depriving it of its natural protection. This leads to the development of respiratory diseases and complications.

Videoscope, also known as endoscope and video endoscope, is used to inspect hard-to-reach places. The device consists of a probe on a wire and an observation unit. The probe is equipped with a video camera, and a built-in light source – an LED – will help to ensure visibility in case of a lack of lighting. The control panel is equipped with a screen where you can examine the received data.

Some videoscopes may not have their own screen, and in such cases a PC or smartphone can be used for viewing .

What is a videoscope for?

Studying the operation of units and mechanisms without disassembly. Monitoring can be carried out even with the units turned on.
Exploration of hollow objects. For example, using a videoscope, you can examine pipe wear from the inside, find rotten areas, a blockage.
Study of the state of surfaces from the inside without the need for dismantling.
Checking the integrity of the product, searching for defects.
Tracking places of leaks of technical fluids.
Videoscopes are an opportunity to save time and effort when carrying out repair work, for which it is popular with motorists and DIYers. Endoscopes are actively used by plumbers, electricians, car repairmen, equipment and various electronics. For example, thanks to this device, you can avoid dismantling furniture and panels in the kitchen or in the bathroom when looking for water leaks, and motorists can track the location of the oil leak or check the condition of the connections.
An important factor when using the device is the user’s safety, because you do not have to look for defects by touch to find faults. Professional models are more functional and can give a detailed assessment of the area under study.

It can be stated that non-destructive testing devices expand the capabilities of the owner and provide high measurement accuracy, which is much higher than the assessment of the condition by eye or touch. Such devices save time, improve the quality and safety of work, and in some cases they are simply irreplaceable.