The vibrating plate is an irreplaceable assistant for compacting and compaction of bulk materials during construction work. Refers to a special tamping technique that acts on the working surface with a metal plate. It is used in development and construction instead of bulky rollers, it can significantly increase productivity and speed of work with the right parameters. In this guide, we will understand in detail the design, purpose and principles of choosing a vibratory plate.
Device and principle of operation
Structurally, the vibrating plate consists of the following basic elements: motor, shaft, vibrator, eccentric and base.
vibratory plate device
The basis of this type of equipment is a working body – a steel or cast iron plate fixed to the frame. Bends up at the edges for ease of movement on a free-flowing surface. In some models, the slab structure is reinforced with stiffeners.
The engine creates rotary motion by burning fuel or converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Depending on the type of drive, they are divided into gasoline, diesel and electric models.
The eccentric shaft translates the rotary motion into translational movement of the plate forward. The eccentric raises the plane and tilts it forward.
The vibrator is represented by a flywheel that mechanically acts on the working surface. This body is constantly ramming bulk material.
When the engine is started, its shaft begins to rotate and transfers the force to the eccentric and vibrator. These, in turn, interact with the metal plate, creating vibration and mechanical stress. Depending on the technical characteristics of the vibrating plate, their field of application is determined.
Where are they used?
The most common areas of application of vibrating plates are the development of plots for private construction with a small area, the compaction of the area for sidewalks, paths, all kinds of park and garden locations. They are also used in the construction of sports grounds, parking lots, road sections, and adjoining territories.
Of the materials that can be compacted using a vibrating plate, there are:
different types of soil;
Depending on the force of the tool and the type of surface, several passes are required to achieve the desired density. For each type of bulk material and scope of application, the appropriate type of vibrating plate is selected according to the main parameters.
Plate weight and compaction depth
The mass of the working body for each vibrating plate can differ from 50 to 250 kg. The lighter the plate, the less layer thickness it can compact. Also, weight affects the ability to process a particular fraction, material or area. All models are conventionally divided into four categories:
Lightweight up to 70 kg – suitable for compaction of sandy or shallow gravel layers up to 15 cm thick. They optimally compact paving slabs, do not crumble concrete and ensure high-quality sealing of joints. Such compactors are not suitable for work on gravel and asphalt.
Universal up to 100kg – allow to tamp the material to a depth of 20 cm. They are used for patching on roads, when arranging garden plots, laying local pipelines and communication lines.
Medium up to 150 kg – suitable for compaction of a loose layer up to 30 cm thick. They are used in the construction of industrial facilities, foundations, asphalt pavement. They are not used for paving slabs, as they can damage it by their own weight.
Heavy ones over 150kg – used for compaction of foundations under the road surface, foundations capable of covering a depth of 60 cm. Not suitable for tiles, and some models may not be suitable for certain fractions of asphalt due to their heavy weight. But they do an excellent job even with sticky soils and can replace the roller.
As a result of ramming, a coherent structure is obtained that does not sag during operation.
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Engine type and energy carrier
To drive the vibrating plate in some models, an internal combustion engine is installed, in others – an electric motor. The internal combustion engine is set in rotation due to the combustion of gasoline or diesel fuel. Such units have more power with the same engine dimensions, but they are also more expensive. Among internal combustion engines, gasoline vibrating plates will cost less than diesel ones, they are more efficient and produce less noise. Also, gasoline units effectively perform their functions even at low temperatures.
Units with an electric motor do not emit combustion products, they are more environmentally friendly and create less harmful effects on the environment and the operator, due to which they can be used even indoors (in tunnels and in any closed space).
The disadvantages of electric vibrating plates include the power cord, which can cause certain inconveniences during the ramming process. Over long distances, such a tool will be limited by the size of an extension cord or will be tied to an autonomous power source. The electric motor has less power than the internal combustion engine, and can be powered either from a stationary outlet or from a generator.
Determines the area of the building material that the vibrating plate can compact in a unit of time and is measured in m / min or m2 / hour. This parameter depends on the weight of the fixture, overall dimensions, drive power and the force generated.
When choosing a specific model, it is necessary to build on the surface area that will have to be rammed and the time allotted for the work. For a private house, summer cottage or small construction, units with low performance are suitable. And for the development of foundations for large-scale projects, road construction or industrial ramming, it is necessary to select vibrating plates with high performance.
In operating mode, the vibrating plate with all its mass moves under the influence of the engine, so the operator can only guide the mechanism by means of the carrier. If the machine does not have enough power to move or lift, the worker will have to exert more effort. This will lead to a waste of time and the need to re-treat difficult areas.
The power is selected in accordance with the type of material to be processed and the planned volume of work. Vibratory plates with capacity:
From 0.3 to 3hp used for ramming in private houses, on sites, summer cottages, laying paving slabs. As a rule, these are devices with an electric motor.
4 to 10hp suitable for patching, arranging park areas, preparing the foundation for the foundation of a one- or two-story building, pipeline or other communications.
More than 10hp designed to solve industrial problems – capital construction, repair and construction of new roads, the development of recesses for the foundation of a multi-storey building.
Power directly determines the cost of the vibrating plate, so you should not choose a model with a good margin. Even in the case of a constant change of objects and the transition to solving new problems, it is quite possible to limit ourselves to the average category of 5 – 6 hp.
Base plate material
The main working element of the vibrating plate can be made of steel or cast iron. It is the base plate that creates the effort to compact the granular surface, the result of ramming will depend on its quality.
The cast iron base is more wear-resistant. Cast iron is a harder and heavier option for the base plate, therefore it is not afraid of interaction with crushed stone and granulated slag. Due to the peculiarities of casting, such a base has a greater thickness and a smaller area in comparison with steel structures. That, on the one hand, increases the force per unit area, but on the other hand, increases the number of passes and the tamping time.
Note that low quality cast iron slabs can crack from interaction with a large fraction of crushed stone or stone. Over time, this will lead to coloring and chipping of pieces of cast iron.
Steel base plates, as on the ZUBR VPB-10 G unit, are less expensive than cast iron ones. However, the degree of wear on hard surfaces is much higher. The main criterion for a quality steel plate is a cast monolithic structure. And to increase its service life when working on hard materials, a special mat can be used.
Determines the number of hits of the mechanism on the surface per unit of time. The greater the number of hits per square meter of surface, the denser the layer will be. The compaction process is reduced to overcoming the space between gravel, removing air from the soil or sand crystals. Therefore, a different frequency is selected for each material:
50 to 70Hz – suitable for sandy surfaces, tile sealing;
from 70 to 90Hz – used for gravel, crushed stone, asphalt compaction;
more than 90Hz – suitable for viscous soils, loams, materials with high humidity.
This indicator determines the amount of fuel burned in the cylinders per unit of time. The larger the volume, the more power the vibratory plate produces, respectively, the unit will be able to ram to a great depth with such an effort. So all devices are conditionally subdivided into an engine with a volume of up to 150 cm2 and more. In the first case, the ramming depth will be up to 20 cm, and in the second 25–40 cm.
It is also worth noting that an increase in engine volume proportionally increases fuel consumption during operation. Therefore, small-volume installations will always be cheaper to operate.
Choosing a vibrating plate for household work in a personal plot or a summer cottage, give preference to models with low weight and tamping depth. The minimum frequency and power of the motor will also fully satisfy the needs of home construction. Such a solution will allow you to save both on the purchase of the device and on its subsequent operation. If you have a stable power source, you can take an electric vibrating plate.
For work on the arrangement of small industrial facilities, the repair of road sections, the arrangement of park areas, options from 100 to 150 kg are suitable . Engine displacement and vibration frequency are selected in accordance with the thickness and type of rammed material.
For industrial purposes, during the construction of large facilities, the construction of foundations or the arrangement of sites for new roads, the most powerful units weighing more than 150 kg and with maximum performance are required . That will provide them with high efficiency and sufficient compaction of the layer in a given time.
When tamping paving slabs, a damping mat is installed on the base plate to reduce the destructive effect. Some models are equipped with an irrigation system, which is indispensable when tamping asphalt and bituminous surfaces.
vibratory plate mat
When choosing a manufacturer, it is better to give preference to proven brands. In most works, representatives of the middle price segment are quite suitable, which are not inferior in quality to components from many European and American manufacturers. Such plate compactors will allow you to get the best price / performance ratio.